I n India, nearly million people lack access to adequate sanitation, increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. However, while building toilets across the country is the need of the hour, it is also important to pay attention to environmentally-friendly set ups and local conditions.
Bio-digester toilets are designed to convert human waste into gases and manure. Once applied, the bacteria can work for a lifetime.
5 Eco-friendly & Affordable Bio-Toilets That Can Bring On a Sanitation Revolution In India
Waste from toilets are sent to a giant underground bio-digester tank where anaerobic digestion takes place. It does not have any geographical or temperature limitation and also does away with the need to set up large sewerage networks. For example, the chambers increase retention time of the waste in places where water table is high, like in Lakshwadeep or homes and offices where people flush frequently.
Design changes are also being worked for toilets in houseboats in Srinagar to avoid water contamination. Moreover, evidence of increased nitrate contamination in groundwater by sewage seepage has been reported in 20 states of the country.
The clay acts as a permeable membrane that regulates the flow of leachates by swelling when in contact with water. The study — which was published recently in the Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development — shows the barrier reducing nitrate concentration by 66 per cent within 12 hours and nearly 94 per cent within a day. Also, realising that Bentonite Enhanced Sand BES may not be available in rural and small towns across the country, IISc researchers have identified a mix of locally-sourced cow dung and sand is equally efficient in removing nitrates from leachate.
Plans are on to install this barrier of cow dung and sand in a few rural pit toilets as part of pilot studies. Sleek and made of stainless steel, the toilets are designed to be installed in locations where access to electricity and common sanitation methods is difficult, if not impossible.
The toilet flushes itself before and after every use, using a minimum amount of water, that is determined through sensors: On an average, each flush uses 1.
Its floor is automatically washed after every tenth use. The lights turn on automatically and draw power from a built-in solar panel. Everything is monitored through GPRS telemetry: the frequency and volume of usage, and water and electricity consumption. Also, there are provisions for waste treatment using anaerobic bio-degradation.
The great thing about this energy efficient toilet is the fact that facilities can be stacked on to the basic framework. Ltd wanted a coin-operated sanitary napkin vending machine inside the toilets they ordered, and Eram Scientific ensured that they got it. Arguably low-tech, bamboo toilets are cheap and practical.Composting toilet
As the name suggests, bamboo toilets are those whose structures are built with bamboo — fast growing woody evergreen plants that have strength comparable to steel. Bamboo toilets represent an eco-friendly and potentially sustainable solution in the quest for building toilets in areas that still do not have access to modern amenities. Though from time immemorial, bamboo has been part of the housing scene, the advent of new building materials and increasing industrialisation has edged out the plant species from the construction sector.
In fact, bamboo, once the housing mainstay of the rural and the poor population, is now the least used material. Recently, two prototype bamboo toilets were set up in Nagaland where Bamboo is readily available. EcoSan or UDDT toilets make great individual toilets for areas where digging the ground is highly complicated.
UDDT is built above the ground level using conventional bricks or hollow blocks. It has two chambers — the urine, faeces and cleansing water go into separate holes. The floor of the chamber is also paved with concrete to prevent water or soil coming into contact with the faeces.
Each chamber will be used for about 12 months alternatively. In this type of toilet, the separation is the key: it allows each to be dealt with at little to no cost. When the faeces dry out and remain isolated in a chamber over weeks and months, they decompose and break down into harmless soil nutrients — this means valuable soil nutrients take out in the form of crops are returned to the soil.
Scientists call this closing the loop on nutrients.Heh, what do you reckon?! Everyday we produce this free fertiliser and flush it down the toilet when it could be being collected, managed correctly and transformed into truly amazing compost. That meant improvements to kitchen, sleeping and living spaces and also the toilet. It is treated in the same way as other compost loo designs in that, once you have been to the toilet, a scoop of saw dust or other suitable carbon-rich material is dropped on top of your deposit.
So, following the helpful design found in the Humanure HandbookI began the job of making the wooden box which houses the collection bucket and of course the toilet seat. Luckily I had all the timber needed just lying around the farm and quickly measured, cut and screwed the box together.
Then any normal toilet seat can be attached to the box and — ta-da! B ox made and hole being cut. Hole cut and bucket ready. Toilet seat attached and ready to use. The finished toilet in place in the van. But where? So, a dedicated humanure heap is needed. The bucketload of human waste is emptied into the middle of the heap which already has a generous layer of cover material acting as a biological filter and then a fork of cover material is added on top of your bucket load.
Just like any other compost heap your humanure heap is left alone to compost down when the bay is full to the top. Another bay can be added to the system and the process starts all over again. So where are we in this process? Well, we have had a handful of volunteers using the compost toilet in the caravan since it was built late last year and so far have almost filled one bay. This has happened quite quickly and I think maybe folks have been adding a little too much cover material both in the bucket and in the heap in the misconception that you need a lot of material to mask any odour or hide their embarrassment!
Plans are already afoot to build another compost toilet, this time an outdoor building close to the caravan. These things usually get into your permaculture system via animal and poultry manures and composting of bought foods as well. Nice job.Nice blog thanks for shareing instersting information about commodity trading. Post a Comment.
What is a Bio Toilet? By Commalinn - August 14, Bio Toilet Technology followed by anaerobic biodgester process contain different groups of bacteria. Therefore, each group is linked to other groups in chainlike fashion, with the weakest links being acetate production and methane production. These waste are polymeric substances, that is large insoluble molecules consisting of many small molecules joined together by unique chemical bonds.
The Small molecules are solubles are quickly go into solution once the chemical bonds are broken. Hydrolysis is the splitting of a compound with water. In the acid forming stage, soluble compunds produced through hydrolysis or discharged to the digester are degraded by a large diversity of facultative anaerobes and anaerobes through many fermentative process.
Acetate is the principal organic acid or volatile acid used as a substrate by methane forming bacteria. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen can be converted directly to acetate or methane. The conversion of large soluble organic compunds to small soulable organic compounds results in little change in the organic strength of compounds.
In the methanogenesis stage, methane is formed mostly from acetate and carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas. All other fermentative product must be converted to compound that can be used directly or indirectly by methane forming bacteria.
BioToilet Treated Sewage Water is utilize for irrigation propose and nutrient rich liquid fertilize composition. For more info, Please contact us on : info biotoilet.
Unknown 23 December at Jack Mike 6 July at Selection of technology for sewage treatment should be on criteria such as plant which work without electricity, require minimum maintenance and most importantly, the technology should be self sustainable. The technology is anmed as biodigester toilet with reed bed technology and is advancement of reed bed technology.
Read more. By Commalinn - June 30, The focus areas are Education, Health care, Sustainable livelihood, Infrastructure development, and espousing social causes.We find it amazing how one designer and manufacturer has been able to take the familiar flushing toilet and produce a new bio-toilet which when combined with a Home Biogas Plant turns human waste Into fuel at a low cost, and very sustainably.
Also, scroll-down to where we have also copied the script for your information, as it is read out in the video:. The home biogas bio-toilet is remarkable for its simplicity. If you have a toilet to flush, consider yourself lucky. If that sounds gross, consider this: 2. This is linked to the transmission of diseases like cholera, diarrhea, and to death. HomeBioGas is launching a system to attack those statistics, taking the waste people generate every day depending on your schedule and using a biodigester to convert the stuff into cooking fuel.
The unit turns waste into methane. Each unit comes with a specially adapted biogas stoveso you can cook on renewable energy at home. The company says a typical home stove top also can be converted to use the gas with a small nozzle adjustment.
The World Wildlife Fund notes that using methane for cooking means less of the greenhouse gas is released into the atmosphere. For those who already have the HomeBiogas system, the Bio-Toilet accessory will allow you to treat your toilet waste too.
For the millions of people around the world lacking sewage lines or even basic lavatories, the new HomeBiogas Bio-Toilet could provide an answer for waste disposal and energy production all at once.
Flushed with a manual pump using only 1.
The waste is flushed directly into the HomeBiogas solar biodigesterwhere it is broken down by bacteria and transformed into biogas for household needs along with other waste such as food scraps and animal manure. The Bio-Toilet connects to the HomeBiogas system, which is an off-grid appliance that turns organic waste into renewable cooking gas. The main appliance — the HomeBiogas system- takes waste such as food scraps and animal manure and using a biological process, turns that into biogas.
The new Bio-Toilet, therefore, adds human waste or humanure, as permaculturists may know it asand uses that as an additional resource to generate free cooking gas. The logistics and installation are so simple. A composting toilet is a type of dry toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process leads to the decomposition of organic matter and turns human excreta into compost-like material but does not destroy all pathogens. Composting is carried out by microorganisms mainly bacteria and fungi under controlled aerobic conditions.
Engineered and built in Sweden sincethey offer customers a convenient waterless toilet solution. It is described as bringing the convenience of a toilet without the need to connect it to a sewer or a septic tank. They do not require water hook ups, which is great for stressed water supplies.
In short, composting toilets are a way to allow waste to decompose safely and without odours. To dispose of your own human waste substantially there are two methods available. These are:. Composting toilet designs are not popular. They have been available for a long time. Most people dislike the idea of their faeces hanging around, beneath a composting toilet.
Nor do composting toilets produce the big assets of this bio-toilet which are biogas and a great garden fertiliser! The HomeBioags bio-toilet can use digestate for flushing, or rainwater when available. In a home bio-digester for human waste, up to Bio-digester toilet technology, perfected by the DRDO Defence Research and Development Organisationis an eco-friendly and maintenance-free system to manage human waste. Under the Swachh Bharat Mission movement, the system is now being demonstrated in rural areas, both at schools and individual households, in Rajasthan and Uttarakhand, among others.
His company, a service provider of bio-digester toilets, has installed bio-toilets in 20 States, apart from the trains. As far as the cost is concerned, the system costs approximately Rs. The biggest advantage is that all the faecal matter is converted into liquid, which is pathogen-free, unlike the pit system which can contaminate the ground water. This water can be allowed to either seep into the ground or be collected for gardening, acting as an effective liquid fertilizer.
On the issue of space, a biodigester toilet would take the same amount of space as any other toilet 4X5 feet and same space for the underground tank. The consumer only needs to ensure that the toilet is kept clean with the use of basic cleaning material. So far, Banka BioLoo has installed over 5, systems effectively across the country, the most recent one being probably the first household bio-toilet in Bundi district of Rajasthan.
A few months ago, the Banka BioLoo team experimented with a few households in a village close to Hyderabad, following which many families installed the system. The system which can be used for mobile toilets is a replacement to age-old septic tanks, and can also be used in resorts, exhibition grounds, remote places, rural housing, hilly terrain, border areas, high altitude areas, islands and beaches.
The eco-friendly biodegradation technology for human waste disposal was first developed by DRDO for the armed forces that were deployed at high altitudes where the sub-zero temperature does not allow the natural biodegradation of organic matter. This used to lead to accumulation of the human waste over the years, contaminating the surrounding ice, which is the only source of drinking water and poses a great health risk.
Further, melted ice contaminates the rivers and other water sources, and ultimately spreads the contamination downstream. The system has proven to be efficient without depending on conventional energy sources, the effluent being odourless while rid of most of the pathogens. Over the years, hundreds of bio-digesters have been installed at various places all over the country.
Notably, the biodigester technology has received global appreciation and acclaim. The campaign seeks to make the country open defecation free by October 2,as a fitting tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his th birth anniversary.
We, at the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation manage the Swachh Bharat Mission Graminunder which we are constantly working towards the improvement of cleanliness in rural India. We welcome you to our blog, where we have compiled some of the many many success stories of people's participation that we receive from the States and districts.
View all posts by sbmgramin. Your technology can be very helpful in kenya where septic tanks are the alternative in most surburbs where sewer system is not available. Like Liked by 1 person. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.Bacteria from Antarctica could help free India of the problems caused by open defecation. After successful experimentation in high altitude toilets used by defence personnel, the Defence Research and Development Organisation DRDO plans to use the bacteria to tackle the problem caused by open defecation in the country.
It will also be put to use in Indian Railways. This has serious health implications and is consequently a big economic burden. Open defecation causes numerous water-borne diseases like diarrhoea, which killschildren every year. Thus, sulphuric acid is produced which causes foul smell. Only 33 per cent of toilets in the urban areas are connected to the sewerage system; sewage from the rest flows in open drains, causing river contamination, as per Census.
The zero-waste biodigester technology breaks down human excreta into usable water and gas through anaerobic process. It does not have any geographical or temperature limitation and also does away with the need to set up large sewerage networks.
The experiments to develop bio-toilets were started by DRDO around 20 years ago. In areas like Ladakh, deep pits are dug for defecation. Once the tank is full it is emptied in fields.
The waste has chances of mixing with melting snow that feed rivers downstream. In freezing conditions, the waste is collected and then incinerated which requires energy and labour. These bacteria can live in cold or hot climate and feed on waste to survive. The bacteria were then cultured in the DRDO lab in Gwalior and tested at various altitudes and temperatures. To use it in a toilet, a tank was fitted below the commode to collect the excreta.
What is bio toilet and how does it work?
The tank made of cement had sheets with bacteria embedded in it and free-floating bacteria. The bacteria cannot move out of the sheets but can multiply. When human excreta comes in contact with bacteria, it gets converted into methane and water through a series of steps of anaerobic digestion—hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.
Faecal matter is composed of carbohydrates, protein and fats. In the first step, they are converted into simple sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. In the next step, these break to form carbonic acid, alcohols, hydrogen and water. In the third step, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide is formed. In the last step, methane, carbon dioxide and water are formed. The best part is that once applied, the bacteria can work for a lifetime.
Bio-digester toilets: an effective system to manage human waste
The first bio-toilet was set up in Ladakh in Every day around people use these toilets. Indian railways has also signed an agreement with DRDO to retrofit these toilets in 50, coaches over five years. Tailored for specific use To suit different geographical requirements, DRDO has also made various design modifications in the biodigester toilets. For example, to avoid choking of toilets in railways because of people throwing non-biodegradable plastics, like bottles, a special lid has been constructed.
On pushing the flush, the flap opens and the bottles fall on the track.Ensuring a safe and welcoming environment which is perfectly designed, perfect fit and perfect color, nice to walk on, soft to the touch, easy to clean with no cracks or joints.
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